How To Set Up a Continuous Deployment Pipeline with GitLab CI CD on Ubuntu 18 04

If a directory is specified and there is more than one file in the directory, the link is to the job artifacts browser. Introduced in GitLab 13.9, keeping latest job artifacts can be disabled instance-wide. Use after_script to define an array of commands that run after each job, including failed jobs. The following topics explain how to use keywords to configure CI/CD pipelines. If all jobs in test succeed, the deploy jobs execute in parallel.

Thanks to that, jobs have low complexity because they are responsible only for a single thing. A pipeline job may require some input, produce some output, use a cache, and need some configuration. At this point you have automated the whole deployment chain. You can now share code changes more frequently with the world and/or customer. As a result, development cycles are likely to become shorter, as less time is required to gather feedback and publish the code changes. Next you’ll update the web page, which will create a new deployment and then re-deploy the previous deployment using GitLab environments.

gitlab pipelines

In order to use distributed task execution, we need to start agents and set the NX_CLOUD_DISTRIBUTED_EXECUTION flag to true. Below is an example of a GitLab pipeline setup for an Nx workspace only building and testing what is affected. Good, store them in artefacts, and consider moving coverage threshold or coverage diffs checks to another stage.

Job keywords

The only section defines the names of branches and tags for which the job will run. By default, GitLab will start a pipeline for each push to the repository and run all jobs (provided that the .gitlab-ci.yml file exists). The only section is one option of restricting job execution to certain branches/tags.

gitlab pipelines

GitLab CI/CD can automatically build, test, deploy, and monitor your applications by using Auto DevOps. Use GitLab CI/CD to catch bugs and errors early in the development cycle. Ensure that all the code deployed to production complies with the code standards you established for your app.

Install Job​

If you are editing content on this page, follow the instructions for documenting keywords. The decisions the runner should make when specific conditions are encountered. When your CI/CD jobs run, in a later step, they will run on your local machine.

gitlab pipelines

You can define multiple resource groups per environment. For example, when deploying to physical devices, you might have multiple physical devices. Each device can be deployed to, but only one deployment can occur per device at any given time.

Second Pipeline

I recommend using thedocker executor for beginners, which guarantees a new environment for each pipeline run. Decision upon executor may be done when registering your runner in GitLab. But, instead of using shared runners, you can useyour own runners installed on your machine. It is a better solution due to performance and security reasons. In 2015 Kamil Trzciński created his own runner written in Go as a side task, which is great for multi-tasking and parallelization.

The release job must have access to the release-cli, which must be in the $PATH. This example creates 5 jobs that run in parallel, named test 1/5 to test 5/5. Define artifacts with a path to the public/ directory.

Multi-project pipelines

Velotio Technologies is an outsourced software product development partner for top technology startups and enterprises. We partner with companies to design, develop, and scale their products. Our work has been featured on TechCrunch, Product Hunt and more. This recommendation is unfortunately not available to users of the public runners on However, if you customize your GitLab runners, it can bring significant speed improvements to running CI/CD tasks.

A limit of 50 tags per job enabled on self-managed in GitLab 14.3. A limit of 50 tags per job enabled on in GitLab 14.3. Introduced in GitLab 15.3 with a flag named ci_rules_changes_compare. Parallel jobs are named sequentially from job_name 1/N to job_name N/N.

Expand the Runners section and switch Shared runners to off . Note the token and URL ; we need them in the next step. Follow the installation instructions for the GitLab runner service for your system.

To achieve this, you’ll store the SSH private key in a GitLab CI/CD variable . The SSH private key is a very sensitive piece of data, because it is the entry ticket to your server. Usually, the private key never leaves the system it was generated on. In the usual case, you would generate an SSH key on your host machine, then authorize it on the server in order to log in manually and perform the deployment routine. Upstream pipelines take precedence over downstream ones. If there are two variables with the same name defined in both upstream and downstream projects, the ones defined in the upstream project take precedence.

Use color codes with before_scriptto make job logs easier to review. After their expiry, artifacts are deleted hourly by default , and are not accessible anymore. Introduced in GitLab 13.12, the latest pipeline artifacts are kept regardless of expiry time.

  • These keywords control pipeline behavior or import additional pipeline configuration.
  • ‍To create a pipeline in GitLab, we need to define it in a YAML file.
  • The deploy job downloads artifacts from all previous jobs because of the stage precedence.
  • The SSH private key is a very sensitive piece of data, because it is the entry ticket to your server.
  • Introduced in GitLab 13.9, keeping latest job artifacts can be disabled instance-wide.
  • Pipeline graphs can be displayed as a large graph or a miniature representation, depending on the page you access the graph from.

See pipeline security for protected branchesfor more information. Do not use this method to pass masked variablesto a multi-project pipeline. The CI/CD masking configuration is not passed to the downstream pipeline and the variable could be unmasked in job logs in the downstream project. The VERSION global variable is also available in the downstream pipeline, because all jobs in a pipeline, including trigger jobs, inherit global variables.

Gitlab documentation is excellent, but when I learn, I need an understanding of fundamental principles – it allows me to build knowledge upon it. Basic pipelines are the simplest option in GitLab, with all jobs in the build stage running concurrently. After completing the build gitlab pipelines stage, it runs all the test jobs similarly. While not the most efficient type of pipeline, it is relatively easy to maintain, although it can become complex if you include many steps. As previously mentioned, a pipeline is a collection of jobs executed by the runner.


By itself, the process of downloading and installing dependencies takes more time than downloading and loading the prepared image. Agree, we all want to build, test, scan and deploy applications as quickly as possible. No matter how strongly we believe in asynchronous workflow, the speed of automated tasks remains one of the key performance indicators of the development process.

Pipeline test report#

Use GitLab’s pipeline duration and success charts to see information about failed jobs and pipeline runtimes. The CI/CD pipeline automatically detects issues through code quality, unit, and integration tests. Accelerate your pipeline’s runtime by running parallel tests within the same stage . GitLab DAG pipelines differ from other CI/CD DAG solutions because they don’t require choosing between traditional or DAG-based operations. GitLab supports hybrid pipelines with stage-based and DAG execution in the same pipeline. It keeps configuration simple and only requires one keyword to enable any job feature.

Artifacts and Cache Operations

A Basic pipeline lives up to its name by having a very simple design. As you might expect, it works especially well with pipelines that have little-to-no complexity to them. When your GitLab project does not consist of many jobs, it will be easy to maintain and deal with errors through the use of the Basic pipeline. You will need to install and register the GitLab runner on your computer before you can use pipelines. The runner has multiple versions available, so you can find one that will work on all the major operating systems.

GitLab CI/CD will later use the key to log in to the server and perform the deployment routine. In order to keep track of the environments that will have contact with the SSH private key, you’ll register your server as a GitLab runner. In the next step, you’ll configure a GitLab runner to keep control of who gets to execute the deployment job.

In short words, it will enable you to configure CI/CD pipelines. For instance, you can deploy a web application from separate GitLab projects, with building, testing, and deployment processes for each project. A multi-project pipeline allows you to visualize all these stages from all projects. It is also useful for large-scale products with interdependencies between projects.

Use the changes keyword with only to run a job, or with except to skip a job, when a Git push event modifies a file. Support for CI/CD variables in project, job, and ref wasintroduced in GitLab 13.3.Feature flag removed in GitLab 13.4. Introduced in GitLab 14.2, you can refer to jobs in the same stage as the job you are configuring. Introduced in GitLab 15.1 with a flag named ci_docker_image_pull_policy. When the Docker container is created, the entrypoint is translated to the Docker –entrypoint option.

Repositories with less than 10,000 files might still be impacted if the existsrules are checked more than 10,000 times. Rules are evaluated when the pipeline is created, and evaluated in orderuntil the first match. When a match is found, the job is either included or excluded from the pipeline, depending on the configuration. Use retry to configure how many times a job is retried if it fails.

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